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英文翻譯中“現在簡(jiǎn)單式”的使用時(shí)機 (3)

這是英文“現在簡(jiǎn)單式”翻譯講解的第三部份,其他部份在‘英文“現在簡(jiǎn)單式”的使用時(shí)機 (1)’、‘英文“現在簡(jiǎn)單式”的使用時(shí)機 (2)’與‘英文“現在簡(jiǎn)單式”的使用時(shí)機 (4)’。閱讀下面英文時(shí)態(tài)解說(shuō)之前,版主建議先閱讀‘英文時(shí)態(tài)概論’與‘英文文法基本概念:動(dòng)詞的基本型態(tài)’,先掌握基本概念,然后再研究細節。

◎ 文章中用于描述或說(shuō)明“假設/想像”的情況

想像的事情‘并未真正發(fā)生’,因此絕對不可使用過(guò)去式,只能用現在式。網(wǎng)友可參照下面的文章,實(shí)際體會(huì )英文正確的時(shí)態(tài)用法。

1) Some of my friends and I have a similar opinion regarding the way some toilets are designed here. Imagine (假設開(kāi)始) having dinner at a restaurant, and all of a sudden your stomach tells you that what you had (過(guò)去事件) for lunch is 90 percent digested. What do you do? Well, of course, you simply get up and look for a place to ease the tension. You go asking where the toilet is, and when you get there, what do you see? A squat toilet!
(節錄自 Literally Wuman 《吳大維週記》)

(翻譯)
我和某些好友對于此地馬桶的設計看法類(lèi)似。比如你在餐廳用餐,突然之間胃通知你,吞下肚的中餐百分之九十已經(jīng)消化完畢,你會(huì )怎幺做?當然,你會(huì )不加思索便起身找地方“紓解壓力”。你會(huì )去問(wèn)廁所在哪里,不過(guò)當你到了廁所,你發(fā)現什幺?蹲式馬桶!


2) Imagine
(假設開(kāi)始) going to heaven and standing by God as He lovingly shows you the calendar of His plan for your earthly life. It begins with the day you were (過(guò)去事件) born. Once you received (過(guò)去事件) Christ as Savior, every day that follows is outlined in red. You see footprints walking through each day of each week of your life. On many of the days, two sets of footprints appear.

(翻譯)
想像你上到了天堂,站在天父的身邊。天父親切向你說(shuō)明祂為你一生規劃的計畫(huà),這項計畫(huà)從你出生的那天便開(kāi)始。你接受耶穌基督成為你生命救主之后,接下來(lái)的每個(gè)日子都以紅色標示。你會(huì )看到你生命中的每一天都留下足跡,有許多日子甚至出現兩對足跡。

3) Shifting Your Clock
Let’s start with a common example: traveling from the West Coast to the East Coast of the United States, which requires a three-hour advance of the body clock. Let’s say (假設開(kāi)始) that when you arrive in New York, you want to feel sleepy at 11 P.M. and to be able to wake up at 7 A.M. (when it is only 4 A.M. in Los Angeles). To advance your clock, take a half-milligram of melatonin at 3 P.M. Pacific time on the day before departure and again on the day of departure.
(節錄自?Personal Health, The New York Times, Wednesday, Aug. 20th, 2008)

(翻譯)
調整生理時(shí)鐘
舉個(gè)常見(jiàn)的例子:從美國西岸飛往東岸,這通常需要將生理時(shí)鐘往前調三個(gè)小時(shí)。你抵達紐約之后,如果要在晚上 11 點(diǎn)就想睡覺(jué),然后隔天早上 7 點(diǎn)就能起床 (那時(shí)洛杉磯才凌晨 4 點(diǎn))。這時(shí)要將生理時(shí)鐘往前調,出發(fā)前一天的太平洋時(shí)間下午 3 點(diǎn)服用半毫克的退黑激素,出發(fā)當天的同一個(gè)時(shí)間再服用一次。

◎‘戲劇、小說(shuō)或電影’的簡(jiǎn)介

戲劇是面對觀(guān)眾,通常會(huì )假設劇情發(fā)生于當下,因此人物對白或場(chǎng)景敘述皆采現在的時(shí)態(tài) (‘現在式’與‘現在完成式’)。由于小說(shuō)或電影情節只存于想像,并未在真實(shí)時(shí)空中演出,因此時(shí)態(tài)要定在“現在”,但是仍然需要以時(shí)態(tài)變化來(lái)表達“事情的先后順序”。

1) Charles turns a leaf. A distant clock strikes the half-hour softly. Charles shuts the book with a clap; throws it aside; snatches up the rattle; and whirls it energetically, making a deafening clatter.
(source: Saint Joan / Epilogue 1 by George Bernard Shaw)

(翻譯) 查理翻了一頁(yè)。遠處的鐘樓輕柔地敲了一記半點(diǎn)鐘響聲。他啪的一聲闔上了書(shū),將它丟于一旁,隨手抓起撥浪鼓使勁旋轉,發(fā)出震耳欲聾的嘎嗒聲。

2) The Family Man (2000) Plot:
Jack Campbell, a successful and talented businessman, is happily living his single life. He has everything, or so he thinks. One day he wakes up in a new life where he didn’t leave (過(guò)去) his college girlfriend for a London trip. He is married to Kate, lives in New Jersey and has two kids. He, of course, desperately wants his life back for which he has worked 13 years for. He is president of P. K. Lassiter Investment House and not a tire salesman at Big Ed’s. He drives a Ferrari and not a mini-van that never starts. And most importantly he doesn’t wake up in the morning with kids jumping on the bed. After a bad start, day by day he is more confident in his new life and starts to see what he has been missing. Turns out money’s good to have but that’s not everything.

(翻譯)
【扭轉奇蹟】劇情簡(jiǎn)介:
杰克坎貝爾是個(gè)成功且精明的商人,他過(guò)著(zhù)快樂(lè )的單身生活,以為擁有自己想要的一切,不料有一天竟然墜入異樣的新生活。杰克驚覺(jué)自己并未離開(kāi)大學(xué)女友凱特而前往倫敦追尋夢(mèng)想。他倆婚后住在紐澤西,生下了兩個(gè)寶寶。杰克當然不想放棄奮斗 13年所得到的成就,極欲想回到原本的生活。他過(guò)去是 P. K. Lassiter 投資公司的總裁,不是在 Big Ed’s 賣(mài)輪胎的銷(xiāo)售員,出門(mén)皆以法拉利代步,不是開(kāi)著(zhù)時(shí)常拋錨的箱型車(chē)。更重要的是,早上不會(huì )有小孩在床上蹦蹦跳跳擾他清夢(mèng)。杰克剛開(kāi)始雖然諸事不順,他卻活得愈來(lái)愈有自信,開(kāi)始明白自己到底失去了什幺。結局是,金錢(qián)雖好卻絕非萬(wàn)能。

3) A City of Sadness?is a 1989 Taiwanese historical drama film by Hou Hsiao-hsien. This film has its setting in a once prosperous gold-mining town in northern Taiwan, and depicts one family’s experiences during the White Terror. The eldest brother is murdered by a Shanghai mafia boss, the middle brother is driven insane in a KMT jailhouse, and the youngest brother is a mute, who wants to flee to the mountains with his friends to fight in the anti-KMT resistance movement. By the end of the film only the youngest brother is alive to tell, in writing, the story of his family’s destruction.

(翻譯)
《悲情城市》是侯孝賢導演 1989 年推出的臺灣歷史電影。本片于北臺灣過(guò)去盛極一時(shí)的金礦小鎮取景,描述某個(gè)家族在白色恐怖時(shí)期的辛酸血淚史。家族長(cháng)兄遭到上海黑幫老大殺害,老二被國民黨關(guān)入大牢后發(fā)瘋,最小的弟第失聰,想與友人前往深山加入反抗國民黨的勢力。電影結束時(shí)只有幺弟還倖存于世,將家族衰亡的過(guò)程記錄下來(lái)昭告于世。


迪朗翻譯如何保證翻譯質(zhì)量?

迪朗上海翻譯公司是一家正規的上海認證翻譯機構,迪朗翻譯將質(zhì)量看做是企業(yè)的生命,我們通過(guò)以下幾方面來(lái)保證我們自始至終為客戶(hù)提供著(zhù)高質(zhì)量的翻譯服務(wù): 項目資源不僅包括譯員,還包括從事翻譯校對、頁(yè)面布局、質(zhì)量控制、編輯和語(yǔ)料庫采編和建立的翻譯輔助人員,項目經(jīng)理是整個(gè)翻譯團隊的負責人,負責項目小組的組建、協(xié)調和管控。我們的所有翻譯都擁有全國翻譯專(zhuān)業(yè)資格(水平)證書(shū),同時(shí)都具備五年以上的翻譯經(jīng)驗。全國翻譯專(zhuān)業(yè)資格(水平)考試(China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters – CATTI)是受?chē)胰肆Y源和社會(huì )保障部委托,由中國外文出版發(fā)行事業(yè)局(China Foreign Languages Publishing Administration)負責實(shí)施與管理的一項職業(yè)資格考試,已經(jīng)納入國家職業(yè)資格證書(shū)制度,是一項在全國實(shí)行的、統一的、面向全社會(huì )的翻譯專(zhuān)業(yè)資格(水平)認證,是對參試人員口譯或筆譯方面雙語(yǔ)互譯能力和水平的評價(jià)與認定。翻譯專(zhuān)業(yè)資格(水平)考試開(kāi)設多個(gè)語(yǔ)種,包括英、日、俄、德、法、西班牙、阿拉伯等語(yǔ)種,各語(yǔ)種分設四個(gè)級別??荚嚨燃墑澐峙c專(zhuān)業(yè)能力如下:

1 資深翻譯:
長(cháng)期從事翻譯工作,具有廣博科學(xué)文化知識和國內領(lǐng)先水平的雙語(yǔ)互譯能力,能夠解決翻譯工作中的重大疑難問(wèn)題,在理論和實(shí)踐上對翻譯事業(yè)的發(fā)展和人才培養作出重大貢獻。
2 一級口譯、筆譯翻譯:
具有較為豐富的科學(xué)文化知識和較高的雙語(yǔ)互譯能力,能勝任范圍較廣、難度較大的翻譯工作,能夠解決翻譯工作中的疑難問(wèn)題,能夠擔任重要國際會(huì )議的口譯或譯文定稿工作。
3 二級口譯、筆譯翻譯:
具有一定的科學(xué)文化知識和良好的雙語(yǔ)互譯能力,能勝任一定范圍、一定難度的翻譯工作。
4 三級口譯、筆譯翻譯:
具有基本的科學(xué)文化知識和一般的雙語(yǔ)互譯能力,能完成一般的翻譯工作。
人事部翻譯專(zhuān)業(yè)資格證書(shū)三級 人事部翻譯專(zhuān)業(yè)資格證書(shū)二級

 

 

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